Filecoin works by splitting up data and storing it on multiple computers. Users willing to store data will be offered several storage options by various other users known as miners, who compete on price and speed. The client then selects their preferred miner and sends their data to be stored.
Filecoin improves upon centralized storage solutions in several ways. Firstly, the protocol makes use of existing resources and has the potential to bring millions of computers together from around the world. This simultaneously reduces the need for new storage computers to be made whilst creating a scalable storage network.